Sonoma State University Why We Should Shop Second Hand Reflective Paper Posted an example of the research and outline. Atleast need 4 resources primary or secondaryWhy We Should Shop Second Hand PERSUASIVE SPEECH OUTLINE
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sentences for speeches #4
Attention Getter: In 2002, during the lead up to the Iraq War, Secretary of Defense
Donald Rumsfeld gave an interview to a CBS radio station and a mother asked him
whether Iraq was enough of a threat to send her son, a deployed Army Reservist, into
harm’s way. His response was for her to think of the 3,000 killed at 9/11 and if
Saddam Hussein or Al-Quada were to get a hold of weapons of mass destruction,
Rumsfeld said “you’re not talking 300, or 3,000 people potentially being killed, but
30,000, or 100,000 of human beings.” And when asked if Iraq would turn …into a
wider conflict, he said, and “I can’t tell you if the use of force in Iraq today would last
five days, or five weeks, or five months, but it certainly isn’t going to last any longer
than that.” Well we know now that the War in Iraq did not last five days, weeks, or
months, its now clocked in at an impressive 14 years, with the war in Afghanistan
being 16, according the U.S Department of Defense the U.S military death toll at
6,774, an injury rate of over 1 million, and 6 trillion dollars in debt. And the number
is 0 for the number of Weapons of Mass Destruction. And as for the Iraqi’s? over
170,000 enemy combatants killed and the civilian death toll at over 500,000.
Rumsfeld’s number of 300,000 killed by WMD’s thankfully never happened.
However, because of the U.S intervention 500,000 were killed instead.
Motivation for Listening: The U.S has a long and ugly history in militarily getting
involved in other countries. And due to Trump’s recent movements and posturing in
Syria, Yemen, and North Korea, as voting citizens it is our duty to know why we get
involve militarily and what other options we have.
Establishing Credibility: I’ve grown up near military bases and about third of the
friends I went to high school with have joined the military. I’ve always been around it
but never fully understood it or why we deploy. And in preparing for this speech I’ve
done extensive research and reading about it.
Thesis Statement: That’s why I believe that in order to stop excessive use of U.S
military interventionism, the U.S should double the amount we spend in the federal
budget on diplomacy and foreign aid.
Preview of Speech (1st , 2nd, 3rd
, etc.) First, I will talk about America’s long and
troubled history with military interventionism, Second I will disprove those that think
the military is the answer to the world’s problems, and Third, I will tell you how we
can pragmatically scale down our foreign military involvements and scale up our
So first, lets talk about the America’s history in foreign meddling.
Establishing the Problem
a. Analysis and Research:
b. In 1945 after the end of WWII, the United States became the top dog. Despite the
death and destruction, WWII had been incredibly profitable for us, and had been
the shock to life our economy needed after the great Depression. Traditionally,
after a war you scale down your military significantly. It’s what we did after the
American Revolution, Civil War, and WWI. However, after WWII we scaled up
our military. The founders in particular knew how dangerous it was to keep a
standing army after war time, and Thomas Jefferson in his 6th Presidential
Address advocated for America to never have a standing army. Diplomacy is hard
and tedious and filled with compromise, but when you have an accomplished
military sitting right there, it seems like the easier option to just deploy them
c. Analysis and Research: According 2005 study from the global policy forum, the
U.S has militarily intervened in over 70 different instances since 1945. Some of
our greatest hits include overthrowing the liberal and democratically elected
prime minister of Iran in 1953 because he didn’t want to allow the U.S and Britain
to take over his oil industry. Which permanently destabilized the country and led
to the extremist government in place today. In the 1960’s and 70’s a secret war
was waged in the country of Laos, where according ABC News, 2 million tons of
bombs were dropped and 40,000 were killed, and since the war 20,000 people
died from the unexploded bombs left over, with 40% of the victims being
children. When we leave these countries after the job is done, we often forget, but
the people we traumatize and the institutions we destabilize never do.
d. Analysis and Research: In addition, American civilians are much more removed
from the military and the world, which makes it easier to deploy troops. In an
interview with The Atlantic admiral Mike Mullen, chairman of the joint chiefs of
staff under George W. Bush and Barack Obama said “he would sacrifice some of
the excellence and readiness to make sure that we stay close to the American
people. Fewer and fewer people know anyone in the military. It’s become just too
easy to go to war”. A study done by Morning Consult and the NYT found in an
experiment that respondents who could correctly identify North Korea tended to
view diplomatic and non-military strategies, such as imposing further economic
sanctions, increasing pressure on China to influence North Korea and conducting
cyberattacks against military targets in North Korea, more favorably than those
who could not. Those who could not, tended to favor direct engagement such as
boots on the ground.
Now that we’ve talked about our history of military interventions, I want to challenge the idea
that military interventionism is a good thing.
Establishing Opposing Viewpoints
e. Build-up and Breakdown: Some people say that militarily intervening in
countries like Syria is the only effective way in saving people. According to
Benjamin Valentino, a professor at Dartmouth College, our intervention in
Somalia in the 90’s cost between 280,000 to 700,000 for each Somali saved.
However, if we simply decided to accept distressed people as refugees it would
cost the U.S around $20,000 according to an article by the Washington Examiner.
And putting economic and political pressure on “bad countries” and their backers,
it would bring the same change without the carnage.
f. Build-up and Breakdown: Some people say, including President Obama that we
have the right to intervene in countries because America is an exceptional country
above everyone else and we know best. I would counter that the founding fathers
thought America was unique because of our commitment towards human rights,
not that we were so exceptional we could do as we wished without repercussions.
Transition: Now that we’ve fact checked those who are for military interventionism, lets talk
about what we can do to stop it.
Call to Action
a. Visualization / Solution: The military is a lethal and efficient force. We truly
have the greatest military in the world. But our military is like a chainsaw, its
great for cutting down trees but if you’re trying to carve a thanksgiving turkey
you make a goddamn mess. What we need instead is a carving knife for the
problems of today, and the equivalent of that is the investment in diplomacy and
foreign aid. And According to SIPRI the Stockhom international peace research
institute, the U.S spends 16% of our annual budget on defense. However,
International Affairs we spend under 1%.
b. Specific Plan of Action: Senator Chris Murphy of Connecticut, a member of the
Senate Foreign Relations Committee, has written a lengthy report on how we can
better allocate our federal budget to prioritize funding the State Department and
foreign aid, while still keeping our military strong. I ask that everyone send out
this letter to Chris to tell him add an amendment to the proposed budget for 2018,
that follows the outline of his r eport.
Transition: In conclusion
Summary of Main Points: We’ve talked about the ugly and destructive history
of U.S interventionism, I’ve disproved those that say the military is always the
answer, and I told you about Senator Chris Murphy’s plan to increase our funding
toward diplomacy and foreign aid.
Reiterate Call to Action: So I hope you all will sign these letters and make a
small difference in how our country is run.
Throwback to Attention Getter: And now, or even 30 years from now, you hear
a politician talking of war, just remember this speech, and remember the
multitude of civilians who most certainly die at our hands and the society we will
most like destabilize like we did in Iraq and Afghanistan. And no matter what you
decide in the end, I just want you to think , is it really worth all that?
DoD News: Secretary Rumsfeld Live Interview With Infinity CBS Radio. Web. May 17 2017.
Board, The Editorial. “Opinion | The False Lure of Military Intervention in Syria.” The New
York Times. The New York Times, 22 June 2016. Web. 17 May 2017.
“United States Department of Defense.” U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE. 19 May 2017.
Web. 20 May 2017.
Administrator. “Global Policy Forum.” US Interventions. Web. 16 May 2017.
Woodruff, Bob, and Karson Yiu. “America’s Secret War in Laos Uncovered.” ABC News. ABC
News Network, 9 Sept. 2016. Web. 17 May 2017.
Perlo Freeman, Sam , Aude Fleurant, Pieter Wezeman, and Siemon Wezeman. “Trends in World
Military Expenditure, 2015.” SIPRI, Apr. 2016. Web. 17 May 2017.
Valentinio, Benjamin A. . “The True Costs of Humanitarian Intervention.” Foreign Affairs, Nov.
& dec. 2011. Web. 17 May 2017.
Bedard, Paul. “Feds spend nearly $20,000 to settle every refugee.” Washington Examiner. N.p.,
08 June 2016. Web. 17 May 2017.
Fallows, James. “The Tragedy of the American Military.” The Atlantic. Atlantic Media
Company, 23 Nov. 2015. Web. 17 May 2017.
Quealy, Kevin. “If Americans Can Find North Korea on a Map, They’re More Likely to Prefer
Diplomacy.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 14 May 2017. Web. 17 May 2017.
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