Information Technology & Operational Strategy for an IT Organization Paper Information Technology Importance in Strategic Planning, Research Paper on Opera

Information Technology & Operational Strategy for an IT Organization Paper Information Technology Importance in Strategic Planning, Research Paper on Operational Strategy for an IT Organization:Please find the attachment “Project” for all the details Thanks! Updated 11/01/2011
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How to Do that Annoying APA Format Stuff: A Brief Overview of the 6th Edition
Scott W. Plunkett
California State University, Northridge
Authors’ names should appear in
order of their contribution to the
Noh Wahnelse and I. M. N. Oyed
University of Invisible Students
Author Note
Scott W. Plunkett, Department of Psychology, California State University Northridge.
Noh Wahnelse, Department of Paranormal Experiences and Life Events, University of
Invisible Students.
I. M. N. Oyed, Department of Anger Management, University of Invisible Students.
Special thanks to Bill White in the Management Department at Liberty University for
suggestions to the content of this document.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Scott W. Plunkett,
Department of Psychology, California State University Northridge, 18111 Nordhoff Street,
Northridge, CA 91330-8255. E-mail:
The abstract provides a brief, comprehensive summary of the paper. Abstracts should not exceed
120 words, unless otherwise stated. Be sure and highlight the major ideas of the paper. For
example, this paper is designed to enlighten people how to use APA formatting through a
somewhat silly example. Important considerations such as formatting, headings, citations within
the text, and references are addressed (not undressed).
Keywords: APA, citing, formatting, 6th edition, referencing
How to Do That Annoying APA Format Stuff: A Brief Overview of the 6th Edition
This document is an overview of how to do an APA formatted paper as outlined in the
Sixth Edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010). My
hope is that this document will help you in your academic and professional endeavors. I know
learning APA styles seems like a hassle and can be scary (Dracula, Frankenstein, & Werewolf,
2006), but there are legitimate reasons the style was established (not just to cause you grief).
Following the style guidelines provides a consistent structure for papers from different authors
across many disciplines. This is especially important for editors and readers. Plus, your grade
may depend upon your ability to follow these guidelines. Whoa! I bet THAT got your attention!
Overview of Headings
There are five levels of heading recommended by APA. These are Level 1, Level 2,
Level 3, Level 4, and Level 5. All major headings (i.e., Level 1 Headings) are bold, centered, and
title case. What is title case? Well, it means that each of the main words is capitalized (e.g.,
“Each of the Main Words is Capitalized”).
Subsection Headings
All subsection headings (i.e., Level 2 Headings) are left justified, bold, and title case.
Notice there are no extra lines between headings and the preceding or following paragraphs. All
text is double-spaced.
Sub-sub headings. The sub-sub headings (i.e., Level 3 Headings) are (a) indented, (b)
bold, (c) sentence case (i.e., only the first letter of the sub-sub heading is capitalized), and (d)
followed by a period. The text immediately follows sub-sub headings on the same line. By the
way, these headings are actually not called “sub-sub headings”; I just like saying ‘sub-sub’. I
also like saying “bubbles.”
I didn’t really have anything to say in this paragraph, but I wanted to show that the next
paragraph would be indented as usual. So, with that in mind, bubbles, bubbles, bubbles.
Other Notes About Headings
You should try to avoid having only one subsection. It is best to have at least two
subsections in any section. Otherwise, there is little reason to use a subsection heading. This
document assumes that your paper will only use three levels of headings. If you are using more
levels of headings then refer to page 62 of the Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association.
General Formatting Guidelines
This section will give a few notes regarding some general formatting junk that you may
want to know. Woo hoo! What a bonus!
Margins and Fonts
Margins and fonts. The top, bottom, left, and right margins should be one inch. Use 12point font. You should use a conservative, serif font type (e.g., Times New Roman, Cambria).
By the way, serif font means that each letter has a little ledge to stand on. Sans (i.e., without)
serif fonts (e.g., Helvetica, Calibri, and Arial) should not be used (except in tables and figures)
because they are more difficult to read and increase eyestrain (bummer!). Do not use script fonts
because some are just annoying (e.g., Braggadocia) while others are hard to take serious
(e.g., Comic Sans).
Paragraphs and Spacing
Paragraphs should be indented 5-7 spaces or 1/2 inch. Make sure your indent is consistent
throughout the whole paper. The best way to do this is to use the tab key on your computer. All
‘sub-sub’ (Hey, I got to say it again) headings should be indented the same as other paragraphs.
Citations and the Reference Section
If a document you cite has only one or two authors, then cite it like so (Knowitall &
Allknowing, 2002; Urkel, 1998). Notice that I used a semi-colon to separate the two different
citations. Also, the citations are in alphabetical order within the parentheses (i.e., “Knowitall &
Allknowing” came before “Urkel”). If there are three to five authors, then cite all the authors and
date (Letterman, Leno, O’Brian, & Plunkett, 2005). If you use the same source cite again that has
three or more authors, just say the first author then “et al.” (e.g., Letterman et al.). For six or
more authors, use the last name of the first author followed by “et al.” the first time you use the
citation (Picky et al., 2002) and throughout the document (Pickey et al., 2002). According to
Knowitall and Allknowing, if you cite the same source in the same paragraph, but the authors are
not in the parentheses (such as in this sentence), then you do not have to give the year again.
If there are two citations from the same author in the same sentence, then you can cite it
as such (Spears, 2004, 2007). Here is a quirky situation. If you are citing two citations that have
the same author and the same year, such as Gas (2001a) and Gas (2001b), then distinguish them
by putting an “a” and “b” after the date. This way you will know which “Gas” I am referring to.
No Date, Group Author, and No Authors and/or Date
Although it can be sad when you have no date (boo hoo sob sob), there is a solution
(yippee!). When citing a source with no date, then use ‘n.d.’ instead of the year (Lonely &
Needy, n.d.).
According to Bert and Ernie (2006), if you are citing a group or organization that
authored a document, then spell out the group’s name each time. The only exception would be if
(a) the group’s name is lengthy and unwieldy, or (b) the abbreviation is easily understandable. If
citing this type of group/organization, then use the full name the first time followed by the
abbreviation in brackets (e.g., Department of Air Quality [DAQ], 2003). The subsequent source
cites would just use the abbreviation (DAQ, 2003).
When citing a source that has no author or editor (e.g., a dictionary or encyclopedia), then
just put the name of the book followed by the date. For example, plagiarism refers to copying
somebody else’s work or ideas but trying to pass it off as your own (Merriam-Webster’s
Collegiate Dictionary, 1993).
How to Cite Quotations
Here is how you cite an exact quote: “I am sorry, but I am not going to apologize”
(Spears, 2007, p. 23). If the quote is more than 40 words, then you should (a) omit the quotation
marks, (b) use a block quote on the next line, and (c) indent the block quote 1/2 inch. Here is a
quote from my webpage.
Quality instruction combines a thorough knowledge of the content, a mature perspective,
recitation, theatrics, humor, and teacher-student contact that is adapted to both the subject
matter being presented and the unique personality of each class. The instructor has a
responsibility to the students to provide an open, affirming, intellectually-invigorating
environment which inspires and facilitates life-long learning. (Plunk’s Teaching
Philosophy, n.d., para. 1)
I also indicated the paragraph number instead of page number since it was an online
article. Since the author was not stated, I just used the title of the page in place of the author.
Please note that the paragraph symbol (¶) is no longer acceptable . Use the word “para.” instead
of the symbol “¶.”
Internet Citations and Personal Interviews
If you are citing an entire Web site, it is satisfactory to give the address of the site just in
the text and not in the references. For example, Plunk’s Home Page is a wealth of information
( The reference list in the paper should only include full citations
from references cited in the paper. One exception is a personal interview. If you interview
someone, then you only need to cite the interview in the text and not in the reference section (I.
B. Smart, personal communication, September 18, 2007).
Overview of Other APA Junk
Commas should be used between words in a series of three or more items. For example,
use commas to separate the following spies: James Bond, Austin Powers, and Inspector Gadget
(see Figure 1). Make sure to put a comma before the word “and” or the word “or’” when
connecting three or more words/phrases.
E.g. and i.e. are often confused. If you use e.g., then you are basically saying “for
example” or “such as.” However, i.e. means “that is.” So, let’s say that I am speaking about
fruits (e.g., apples, oranges, lemons), then I would want to use e.g. (i.e., for example).
If you are providing a list within a paragraph, then you should (a) use small letters, and
(b) enclose the letters in parentheses. On the other hand, if you are providing a list that is in
separate paragraphs, then:
1. Use Arabic numbers followed by a period. Notice in this example there are no
2. Although I prefer a hanging indent, APA style has the succeeding lines flush left such
as in this example.
Last Comments
If you have any questions, ask your professor (Bird, 2006; Snuffleupagus, 2006; Urkel,
1982). Remember, “The instructor has a responsibility to the students to provide an open,
affirming, intellectually-invigorating environment which inspires and facilitates learning.
(Plunk’s Teaching Philosophy, n.d., para. 1). If you find an error on this page, let me know
because all people make errors (S. W. Plunkett, personal communication, September 9, 2010).
Note: Items appearing in red are just to help you figure out which type of citation is being demonstrated. The items in
red should not be included in your reference sections.
American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Electronic references made easy. Retrieved April
18, 2004, from (online document created by a private
organization with no date – notice that there is a retrieval date because this document is likely to change)
Bert, I., & Ernie, U. (2006, March). An examination of same-sex, heterosexual male
relationships. Paper presented at the meeting of the Sesame Street Society, Los Angeles,
CA. (Unpublished paper presented at an annual meeting)
Bird, B. (2006). Towering over the world and loving it: An autobiographical case study.
(Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Sesame Street, Burbank, CA.
(dissertation not abstracted in DAI – thesis would be the same except say “master’s thesis”)
Department of Air Quality. (2003). How to live a happy and healthy life: Free of gas at last
(DAQ Publication No. 51-0091). Washington DC: Author. (government report published by the
same government agency)
Dracula, C., Frankenstein, C., & Werewolf, I. M. (2006, March). An examination of
misrepresented figures in history: Persecution instead of love. Poster session presented at
the annual meeting of the Monsters and Clowns Society, Los Angeles, CA. (Poster session
presented at meeting)
Gas, P. U. (2001a). Can you say stinky? In P. U. Skunkett & P. U. Skunk (Eds.), Famous people
leaving lasting impression (pp. 26-47). Springfield, IL: Grover Press. (book chapter)
Gas, P. U. (2001b). Garlic, rotten eggs, and dung. The history of the scientific study of smells.
Retrieved from (online document with author –
notice the retrieval date is not included because this is a final version of the document)
Knowitall, I., & Allknowing, I. M. (2002, January 5). Answers to everything you ever wanted to
know. Omniscient Magazine, 21(1), 22–29. (magazine)
Letterman, D., Leno, J., O’Brian, C., & Plunkett, S. W. (1982). How I handle all those people
who want my autograph: It is a curse. The Journal of Notable People, 1(2), 75–84.
doi:10.99/s99999-999-9999-9 (journal article with multiple authors – notice there is a digital object
identifier [DOI] listed. If an article does not have a DOI, then no DOI will be listed)
Lonely, I. M., & Needy, I. M. (n.d.). Dating guide for the busy professional. Silicon Valley, CA:
Pathetic Press. (brochure with two authors and no date)
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
(book, no author or editor)
Picky, I. M., Anal, I. B., Ucheat, I. C., Losepoints, U., Cry, U., Giveup, U., . . . Kwitter, U. R.
(2002). The anal-retentive professor. Prague, Czech Republic: Freud Press. (book with more
than 6 authors – only the first six and the last author are listed with … in between)
Plunk’s teaching philosophy. (n.d.). Retrieved September 1, 2003, from (online article with no author or date. Because it is not a final
version of the document, the retrieval date is included)
Plunkett, S. W. (1982). The cool dude manuscript. Unpublished manuscript, Department of
Coolness, The Players University, Enid, OK. (unpublished manuscript at a university)
Spears, B. J. (2000, December). Loss of innocence, underwear, and hair: A first person account.
Psychology Yesterday, 20–25. (monthly periodical with no volume number)
Spears, B. J. (2007). The Plunk is a madman: Writings of a scorned woman. Berkeley, CA: Jilted
Women’s Press. Retrieved from (electronic version of
Snuffleupagus, A. (2006). Coming out of my life as an invisible woolly mammoth: An
autobiographical case study. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section Z.
Parapsychology, 75(2), 418. (dissertation abstracted in DAI – Note: 75 is the volume number, 2 is the
issue number, and 418 is the page number)
Urkel, S. Q. (1998). Fashion faux pas: Dressing for success in a sea of polyester. The Journal of
Research Nerds, 5(3), 122–123. doi:10.9999/s99999-999-9999-9 (journal article with one
Table 1
Summary of Dominance Analyses Establishing Relative Weights for Sources of Academic
Support and Mexican American Adolescents’ Academic Success
Academic Motivation
Academic Satisfaction
Grade Point Average
support by:
(n = 124)
(n = 92)
(n = 112)
(n = 88)
(n = 108)
(n = 86)
Total R2
F value
Note. Mothers and fathers refer to a primary parent figure. All variables are from adolescent selfreport measures except for grade point average which is from school records.
*p < .05. **p < .01. APA FORMAT EXAMPLE 13 12   10   Coolness 8   Hotness 6   Style 4   Toughness Cleverness 2   0   James Bond Jason Bourne Austin Powers Inspector Gadget Figure 1. Ratings of spies from 1 (low) to 10 (high). Information Technology Importance in Strategic Planning Research Paper on Operational Strategy for an IT Organization You are on an IT management/leadership team in a medium size IT organization and are responsible for three engineering teams. Your teams are implementing about 15-20 projects per year for the company, and also provide support and maintenance of current systems. While your teams have been successful in project delivery overall, you have to constantly shift people from project to project to meet multiple competing timelines. The engineers are overworked and stressed, and any small delay or problem impacts multiple project deliveries. Your engineers are also reminding you that some of the core technologies your systems are built on are getting old and will need upgrades or completely different technical approaches. Their preliminary analysis also shows that upgrading or replacing core technologies will result in the need to reengineer some of your existing systems, so that teams can better support current and future projects as well as take advantage of the new technologies. A new CIO has recently joined your company and has assembled a committee to determine and prioritize the necessary changes in IT processes, technologies, and approaches to project delivery. You have been invited to participate in this committee to provide your and your teams’ perspectives as input to upcoming operational strategy changes. As you reflect on the day-to-day issues your teams are facing, you note the following trends: • People – the number of employees you have is relatively small compared to the number of people needed to staff all projects and other IT activities your teams are responsible for. When you have requested additional employee positions, you were told that the company does not want to expand the IT organization at this point. There is a budget associated with each project, so you can use this budget to hire contracting resources. You are asked to keep costs down, so you have to think of creative ways to staff projects quickly and with qualified people, while reducing costs. You are concerned that the system and technology knowledge may be lost when contractors leave. You can also see the strain on your employees, who are tasked with overseeing contractors, facilitating knowledge transfer and ensuring the projects remain high quality and with on-time delivery despite the changing staff members. • Project delivery – your company has a thorough process of selecting projects for IT implementation based on business priorities. Selected projects go through multiple reviews of technical and architecture approaches and a detailed budgeting process before they are approved for implementation. While you value the diligent governance for IT project delivery, you are also concerned that many of the projects end up with a very short implementation timeline due to the long initial selection/ideation/budgeting/approval process. Your teams are often faced with delivering projects on very compressed schedules, resulting in cuts to time spent testing, stressed team members, and some functionality being delivered in later releases. • Core technology upgrades – while your teams are busy on project implementation and deliveries, technology frameworks that your systems are built on seem to be aging quickly. You have been setting aside some budget and engineering time every year to upgrade or replace one or two of the many core technologies powering your systems. These technology improvements seem to always take longer than you expect, impact a lot of the systems, require some changes and lots of retesting. In some cases, there is no choice but to upgrade, as vendors... Purchase answer to see full attachment

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